The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949, hence the Constitution Day is observed to honor it.
Subsequently, the Constitution of India came in to force on 26 January which India celebrates as Republic Day each year. The Constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic Country, assuring its citizens justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them.
Indian history shows the conflict between two sections of Indian society upper class and lower class. Many saints, reformers failed in their endeavor for upliftment of these exploited classes of people. Pre-independence and ensuing Independence these exploited class of people were looked unhealthy, unaccepted & unwanted in the society and fearful, living the life of animals.
Dr. Bhim Rao Ramji Ambedkar known as Babasaheb succeeded in his struggle for attainment of real human values and equality, through law. Ambedkar’s was a Chief Architect of Constitution which India adopted. Centuries later India witnessed how these classes of people are moderately healthy, accepted under compulsions, wanted very much in every sphere of life.
Indian Constitution assures dignity of the individuals and the unity and integrity of the Nation. It has smoothly transformed the society on the principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity as compared to the inhumanity/inequality that existed in past.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was of the view that liberty and equality had a place; but unlimited liberty destroyed equality and absolute equality left no room for liberty. He believed that law had a place only to safeguard against the breaches of liberty and equality but can’t guarantee for breaches of liberty or equality. He thought of various aspects of human civilization like Social, Religious, Economic, Cultural and Political for not only the development of exploited class but for whole Indian Society.
His advice for people was to Educate, Agitate and Organize. Accordingly to him human battle is not for wealth or power but for freedom and reclamation of human personality.
He also believed that the degree of the progress of the community is measured based on the degree of the progress the women of that nation had made as the women play major part on educating the children. Mother fills ambition into child and makes them realize that they are destined to be great.
The religion that does not recognize one as human being, does not permit to drink water or enter the temple, provide education, practice untouchability is not worthy to be called a religion. Ambedkar wanted to reform such Hindu religion by destroying inequality and spreading humanity in society. Considering all of them the Constitution was drafted and adopted.
The Constitution of India governs the nation, it lawfully guide the society. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world.
Laws made after adoption of the Constitution by the Constituent Assembly should be compatible with the constitution, otherwise the laws and amendments are deemed to be void. Parliament cannot override the constitution.
Institutions of governance, such as the Parliament, the President, the Judiciary, the Executive, etc. did not exist before the adoption of the constitution, by the people of India, and were created by it. Constitution further grants duty to President of India to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law.
Altogether, the Constitution of India is federal in nature but unitary in spirit. It acts like a guardian in protecting the fundamental rights of the people. It aids to resolve the conflicts between the centre and a state or among states.